Room XVIII exhibits a selection of the compendia (boxes) of surgical instruments belonging to Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla, military surgeon and personal physician to the Austrian Emperor Joseph II. The instruments are arranged in each box by intended use: skull and eye surgery; obstetrics and gynecology; lithotomy; amputation; removal and incision.
In addition to surgical instruments, there are specimens of obstetric models: the wax models are life-sized; the terracotta versions are reduced to a 1:3 scale. Together with the anatomical waxes in the Specola Museum in Florence, these models are among the most significant examples of the use of artistic techniques for teaching medicine and obstetrics to midwives and surgery students in Florentine hospitals at the end of the eighteenth century. The obstetric models offered a sort of catalogue of possible events in the delivery process. They effectively simulated the manual and instrumental procedures to be performed. The objects in this room come from the Santa Maria Nuova hospital in Florence.