Online Exhibits > Leonardo and the Engineers of the Renaissance > Models

Recirculation mill

Dimensions:271x185x105 cm
Materials:durmast, elm, beech, metal, crystal
Constructor:SARI e FA-MA, Firenze
Date:1991

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Working model after Francesco di Giorgio, Ms. Ashburnham 361 (BMLF), fol. 36r

Working model of recirculating-water mill, defined by Francesco as a "still-water mill" (mulino in acqua morta). The system combines a mill driven by a vertical vane wheel and a walking-beam pump. The vane wheel drives a crankshaft that activates the pump rods, which, in turn, power the wheel. These machines, of limited practical efficiency, vividly illustrate Francesco's efforts to control the element water with sophisticated mechanical contrivances.

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