Based on epigraphic material in cuneiform characters found in excavating the capital city Khattusha (today’s Boğazköy), it has been possible to trace the ancient Hittite civilization, which flourished in Turkey between the 17th-16th and the 13th century B.C.
For the Hittites, the concept of ornamental garden did not exist. The garden’s function was practical and productive, and many plants now considered ornamental were grown for medicinal purposes.
Fields, groves of trees, vegetable gardens, plots of medicinal and aromatic herbs, vineyards and orchards, irrigated by a system of canals, were sometimes surrounded by fences with gates. Aromatic plants in particular were widely cultivated. In the gardens of Dur-Sharrukin, King Sargon II (721-704 B.C.) had “all of the aromatic plants in the land of the Hittites” planted.
The importance of gardens is also demonstrated by the existence of a “festival of gardens”.