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If the Cosmography Room was the image of the world and of political power, the nearby Room of Military Architecture, better known as "Stanzino delle Matematiche" (Mathematics Room), was the image of cultural power. As suggested by some of the scenes painted on the ceiling, battles are not won with weapons alone but with commitment and knowledge as well. The project was carried out in 1599 to the indications of Filippo Pigafetta (1533-1604), a great traveler, translator of the Meccaniche of Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607) and, during that period, a diplomat of Ferdinando I (1549-1609). He was probably also responsible for the iconographic program of the ceiling painted by Giulio Parigi (1571-1635), which is a sort of illustrated history of mathematics and its applications. Some of the scenes illustrate the famous discoveries and inventions of the mathematicians of antiquity - Pythagoras, Ptolemy, Euclid, and above all Archimedes - alternating with drawings of real instruments in the Medici collections. Many of them can still be recognized among the instruments found today in the Museo di Storia della Scienza. Books, drawings, pilot’s books and geographic maps were also kept in the "Stanzino".