The thick longitudinal timber at the bottom of a wooden ship on which the whole framework is built up.

Knights of the Hospital
Also known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Rhodes. Originally formed during the First Crusade as a religious order to provide medical care for Christians in Jerusalem, it soon became a military monastic order. The Knights took control of Rhodes in 1309, but lost the island to Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in 1522. They moved their headquarters to the island of Malta and became known as the Knights of Malta, and Knights of St. John.

lateen rig
The arrangement of masts, sails, and rigging for a vessel equipped with large triangular lateen sails.

lateen sails
Triangular sails hung on a long yard attached to a mast, traditional in Mediterranean ships of the Middle Ages.

lee shore
A shore toward which the wind blows across a ship.

Lepanto was the Italian name for the Greek town of Naupaktos, a fortified hill town that possessed the best harbor on the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth.

linear equation
An algebraic equation in which the quantities are of the first power and an added constant (e.g., y = 3x + 4).

The lira was the standard medieval unit of money, defined as 20 soldi of 12 piccoli each. In Michael's day, Venice used two lire, the lira di moneta, defined as 240 piccoli, and the lira di grossi defined as 240 grossi. Pl. lire

Along with Bruges, London was one of the two main destinations for the galleys of Flanders. During Michael's time, England was ruled by Henry IV (r. 1399-1413), Henry V (r. 1413-1422), and Henry VI (r. 1422-1461). The most important good traded for was wool.

lunar epact
The calculated age of the moon on a given day of the year (March 1, for Michael), used as a reference point to calculate the age of the moon on any other day of the year.

The primary and usually the largest mast of a sailing vessel with more than one mast.

Manfredonia was the town in southern Italy where Michael first signed on as homo da remo in 1401.

A mathematical technique for reckoning distance and direction at sea that relies on the use of a precalculated table of values.

A large vertical spar resting on the keel and extending above the deck that supports the sails.

Mehmed I
1389-1421; a son of Turkish Sultan Bayazed I who became sultan in 1413 following a lengthy power struggle with his brothers. The Ottoman Empire continued to expand under Mehmed's reign.

The smaller mast found aft of the mainmast.

One of Venice's most important naval bases, Modone (ancient and modern Methone) guarded the entrance to the Adriatic. Almost all Venetian galleys called at Modone en route to their destination and again on their return to Venice.

Located at the mouth of the Dniester River, this city was the natural outlet for the rich goods and produce of the Ukraine. Goods traded for here included furs, skins, honey, grain, and iron. This destination was used by the Venetians for only a few years.

Murad II
c. 1404-1451; sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1421-1451, a period marked by the consolidation and military expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Greece, the Balkans, and Asia Minor.